Lecture 10: Company Culture and Building a Team, Part I 第十讲:企业文化与团队建设(上)

视频地址:https://www.bilibili.com/video/BV1Ey4y1v7ed?p=4

讨论地址:http://www.huomen.com/topic-show-id-103.html

Alfred Lin
林君睿
I'll set the stage with some slides and a few comments but the main stage is going to be with Brian when he comes up and talks about how he built the AirBnB culture. So, you are here, you have been following the presentations, so you know how to get started. You have built a team, you know how to build your product, it’s off the ground, it's growing. People love it, you figured out how to do that. You figured out to create a special one of a kind company with monopoly powers, that’s big. And the market you are chasing after is slightly bigger than the paper airplane business, so you are good, right? So now what?
我会用一些幻灯片和一些评论来搭建舞台,但主要的舞台是布莱恩,当他上来谈论他是如何建立AirBnB文化的时候。所以,你在这里,你一直在关注演示,所以你知道如何开始。你已经建立了一个团队,你知道如何建立你的产品,它已经起步,它正在成长。人们喜欢它,你知道怎么做。你想创造一个特别的,独一无二的,拥有垄断权的公司,那是很大的。而且你所追求的市场比纸飞机业务略大,所以你很好,对吧?那现在怎么办?
So we are here to submit that actually culture is the thing that is actually going to be very, very important to scale the business as well as your team. And hopefully, after this talk you will be able to know: What is culture? Why does it matter? How do you create your core values? And think about elements that fit together for core values and culture that create a high performance team. Get some best practices for the culture.
因此,我们在这里提出,实际上,文化是一件非常非常重要的事情,它对企业和团队的发展都非常重要。希望在这次演讲之后,你们能知道:什么是文化?为什么重要?你如何创造你的核心价值观?并思考一些要素,这些要素共同构成核心价值观和文化,从而创建一个高绩效团队。为文化获取一些最佳实践。
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What is culture? Anybody want to take a guess at how one should define this? {Simple values in a team?} Yeah, that’s good. Did you look that up because you had a computer and an internet connection? These are some definitions that you will find in Webster’s dictionary but we are Stanford. This is kind of a trick question. It’s a CS class, the questions are never straight forward.
什么是文化?有人想猜猜应该怎么定义这个吗?{团队中的简单价值观?}是的,很好。你查这个是因为你有电脑和网络连接吗?这些是你可以在韦伯斯特字典里找到的一些定义,但我们是斯坦福大学的。这是个有点诡计的问题。这是一门CS课程,问题从来都不是直截了当的。
The real question is, what is the company culture going to be. Culture, we can generally talk about society, about groups, about places, or things. Here we're talking about company culture. So how does one define company culture? We can take the previous definition and modify it a little bit. This is a hint of how we may want to define company culture. Every day blank and blank of each member of the team in pursuit of our company blank. Some people have filled these in with different things. The first blank, A, could be assumptions, beliefs, values, now my favorite is core values. The second blank for the B blank, people said behavior, my favorite is action. How do you act? In pursuit of goals, that’s kind of weak, in pursuit of big and hairy audacious goals is a little stronger, but a better definition is in the pursuit of mission.
真正的问题是,公司文化将是什么样的。文化,我们通常可以谈论社会、群体、地方或事物。这里我们谈论的是公司文化。那么如何定义公司文化呢?我们可以接受前面的定义并稍加修改。这暗示了我们应该如何定义公司文化。每天的空白和空白的每一位团队成员都在追求我们公司的空白。有些人用不同的东西填满了这些。第一个空白,A,可以是假设、信念、价值观,现在我最喜欢的是核心价值观。第二个空白为B空白,人们说的行为,我最喜欢的是行动。你是怎么表现的?在追求目标的时候,那是一种软弱,在追求大而毛茸茸的大胆目标的时候是一种坚强,但更好的定义是在追求使命。
So now that we have that definition, what do we do with that and why does it matter? This is a quote from Gandhi “Your beliefs become your thoughts. Your thoughts become your words. Your words become your actions. Your actions become the habits. Your habits become your values. And your values become your destiny.” If you don't have a good culture in the company you can’t pursue your destiny.
既然我们有了这个定义,我们该怎么处理它,为什么这很重要?这是甘地的一句名言:“你的信仰变成了你的思想。你的思想变成了你的语言。你的言语变成你的行动。你的行为会变成习惯。你的习惯成为你的价值观。你的价值观就是你的命运。“如果你在公司里没有良好的文化,你就不能追求自己的命运。

Why it matters is that it becomes the first principles you sort of go back to when you make decisions. It becomes a way to align people on values that matter to the company. It provides a certain level of stability to fall back on. And it provides level of trust, people sort of trust each other with, but it also gives us a list with which you should be able to figure out what to do and what not to do. And what the more important thing about that is what not to do. Then finally the other thing that is important is it allows you to retain the right employees. There are people in this world that are not going to be a fit for your company, but if you have good strong culture, and the strong core values, you'll know who you want to retain and who you truly do not want to retain. And if you take the first letter of those it happens to help you move faster.
重要的是当你做决定的时候它会成为你的首要原则。它成为了一种让人们在对公司重要的价值观上保持一致的方式。它提供了一定程度的稳定性。它提供了信任的等级,人们互相信任,但它也给了我们一个列表,你可以用它来决定做什么和不做什么。更重要的是不要做什么。最后,另一件重要的事情是它能让你留住合适的员工。在这个世界上,有些人不适合你的公司,但如果你有良好的、强大的文化和强大的核心价值观,你就会知道你想留住谁,你真正不想留住谁。如果你取了其中的第一个字母,它会帮助你更快地移动。
Another reason, you're thinking that's like all mushy stuff, this is actually more scientific stuff. So here are indices from 1994 to 2013, stock market indices of companies in the S&P500, and the Russell 3000, and the Fortune 100 Best Companies to Work For. All these companies out there and they picked out companies that they believed were the best companies to work for. The stock market returns of those companies happen to be 11.8%, which is almost twice that of the other two indices. And so there is real power in companies that treat their employees well, where there's a lot of trust, there is a lot of strong culture.
另一个原因,你认为这就像所有糊状的东西,这实际上是更科学的东西。以下是1994年至2013年的指数,标普500指数,罗素3000指数,以及财富100强最佳工作公司的股票市场指数。所有这些公司在那里,他们挑选的公司,他们认为是最好的公司工作。这些公司的股票市场收益率恰好为11.8%,几乎是其他两个指数的两倍。因此,在那些善待员工的公司里,有真正的权力,那里有很多信任,有很多强大的文化。
So how do you create a set of values and define the culture etc? Get asked that a lot. You have to start with the leader of the company and the founder, and ask yourself what are the values that are the most important to you? Of those things, that are most important in the business? Who are the types of people you like working with? And what are their values? And through that you distill together what a set of values are. Think about all the people that you've never liked working with. What values do they have? Think of the opposite of that. Maybe those should be considered values for your company. Finally remember the values have to support your mission and if they don't support your mission, you’re missing something. Then the last final checks are they have to be creditable, they have to be uniquely tied to match your mission. So at Zappos, in terms of uniquely applied to the mission, we were focused on creating a culture that was going to provide great customer service. So the first core value we had, was to deliver wow through service. We are very specific that we wanted to deliver great customer service and it was going to be a wow experience. And then below that we wanted to serve.
那么你如何创造一套价值观,定义文化等等?经常被问到这个问题。你必须从公司的领导者和创始人开始,问问自己对你来说最重要的价值观是什么?在这些事情中,哪些是最重要的?你喜欢和谁一起工作?他们的价值观是什么?通过这一点,你可以把一组值提取到一起。想想那些你不喜欢与之共事的人。他们有什么价值观?想一想与之相反的事情。也许这些应该被认为是你公司的价值观。最后要记住,价值观必须支持你的使命,如果它们不支持你的使命,你就错过了一些东西。最后的检查是他们必须是可信的,他们必须是唯一的联系,以配合您的任务。因此,在Zappos,在独特的应用于使命方面,我们专注于创造一种文化,提供优质的客户服务。所以我们的第一个核心价值,就是通过服务来提供惊喜。我们非常明确地表示,我们希望提供出色的客户服务,这将是一次令人惊叹的体验。然后在下面我们想要服务。
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I had a paragraph talking about what we mean by that, we wanted to support them, doing the wow through service, and support people such as our employees, our customers, our brand partners, and investors. On terms of the opposite thing, we generally didn’t like working with arrogant people, so one of our core values at Zappos was to be humble. So those are two examples where we create core values in a way that became credible and uniquely tied to our mission.
我有一段话谈到了我们的意思,我们想支持他们,通过服务创造惊喜,支持员工、客户、品牌合作伙伴和投资者。相反,我们一般不喜欢和傲慢的人一起工作,所以我们在捷步达康的核心价值观之一就是谦虚。因此,这是两个例子,我们创造核心价值的方式变得可信,并与我们的使命有着独特的联系。
So you go through this process, you come up with a few core values, these might be some of them, whether it's honesty, integrity, service, teamwork. It might be a list, you might start with three, might end up with a list of ten, you might have a list of thirty. It’s a good start. When Zappos went through this process we asked all the employees at the time what core values they can identify with and they came up with thirty-seven. We whittled that down to about ten. And it took a year to do this, that's a long time and you might want to ask why. Well if you just come up with the word honesty, give me a break, everybody wants the culture to be honest, nobody is going to say I want to be lied to every day.
所以你经过这个过程,你会想出一些核心价值观,这些可能是其中的一些,无论是诚实,正直,服务,团队合作。它可能是一个列表,你可能从三个开始,可能以十个列表结束,你可能有三十个列表。这是个好的开始。当Zappos经历这个过程时,我们询问了当时所有的员工,他们能认同什么样的核心价值观,他们得出了37个答案。我们把数字缩减到大约十个。这需要一年的时间,这是一个很长的时间,你可能会问为什么。好吧,如果你想到诚实这个词,让我休息一下,每个人都希望文化是诚实的,没有人会说我每天都想被欺骗。
Service, what do you mean by service? There’s got to be a lot more depth in this than that. And everybody talks about teamwork, but there's a difference in level of teamwork that you see in an intramural sports team vs a baseball team. How do you dive deeper into teamwork? What are the things that don't work for a team? A lot of it has to do with communication, a lot has to do with things that people of study, and you may one go deeper into that. At Zappos we thought about, well there are a lot of smart people in this room. When they're fighting with each other and trying to figure out who's right and who's not, it’s probably not the best use of time. We wanted everyone to build off each other and help each other make any idea better. The result is that the company gets a better idea, not that any individual person is right. So we wanted to make and still, this idea that it's company first, then your department, then your the team, then yourself. And how do you do that?
服务,你说的服务是什么意思?这里面肯定比那里面深得多。每个人都在谈论团队合作,但是你在校内运动队和棒球队中看到的团队合作水平是不同的。你如何深入团队合作?什么东西不适合团队?很多都和交流有关,很多都和学习的人有关,你可能会更深入的了解。在我们想到的捷步达康,这个房间里有很多聪明人。当他们互相争斗,试图找出谁对谁错的时候,这可能不是对时间的最佳利用。我们希望每个人都能相互借鉴,互相帮助,把任何想法都做得更好。结果是公司得到了一个更好的主意,而不是任何个人都是对的。所以我们想让这个想法,首先是公司,然后是你的部门,然后是你的团队,然后是你自己。你是怎么做到的?

We are going to go a level deeper in that. There's another great element of high performing teams that I really like. Which is this pyramid that was created by Patrick Lencioni, and he wrote this book, “The Five Dysfunctions of a Team.” And the reason this is interesting is he talks about the breakdowns of the team. A lot of teams break down because they have no trust and even if you had trust, why do you need trust? If you have trust, you can actually have debates and conflict and get to the right answer. If you don't have conflicts and debate, it's the blind leading the blind. How do you actually know you got to the right answer before you commit to something? So people are not actually wanting to commit, they're afraid of committing.
我们将更深入地了解这一点。我非常喜欢高绩效团队的另一个重要元素。这个金字塔是由Patrick Lencioni创造的,他写了这本书,“一个团队的五种功能失调。”有趣的是他谈到了团队的崩溃。很多团队崩溃是因为他们没有信任,即使你有信任,你为什么需要信任?如果你有信任,你就可以进行辩论和冲突,找到正确的答案。如果你没有冲突和争论,那就是盲人在引导盲人。在你做出承诺之前,你怎么知道你得到了正确的答案?所以人们其实并不想承诺,他们害怕承诺。
Let’s say you get to the next level when you are actually able to commit. What goes wrong then? It's usually because people are not held accountable to things that they committed to. And if people are not held accountable to the things that they committed to, then they can’t get results. If you think about the company as a black box and results, whether it's financial, whether you produce a great product, or anything like that as the output, one of the major inputs is the culture of the company. Some other best practices, we are actually going to talk though in the Q and A because I think they are going to blend into the conversation, is that you want to incorporate your mission into your values, we talked about that.
假设你达到了一个新的水平,当你真的能够承诺的时候。那怎么了?这通常是因为人们没有对他们所承诺的事情负责。如果人们对他们所承诺的事情不负责任,那么他们就不能得到结果。如果你把公司看作一个黑匣子和结果,不管是财务上的,还是你生产出了一个好产品,或者其他类似的东西作为产出,一个主要的投入就是公司的文化。其他一些最佳实践,我们实际上会在问答中讨论,因为我认为它们会融入到谈话中,就是你想把你的使命融入到你的价值观中,我们已经讨论过了。
Performance, you need to think a bit harder, deeper, longer about your values than you might initially think you need to. One of the things I think a lot of companies don't actually do is, they interview for technical fit or skill fit, a competency in that realm, but they don’t actually interview for the culture fit, whether someone will actually believe in and follow the mission. I think that is a big, big no no. I think you can have the smartest engineer in the world but if they don't believe the mission they are not going to pour their heart and soul into it. And that's one of the things where if you actually start thinking about culture, from the interview process, to performance reviews, to making sure that’s a daily habit, you get a lot further with making a great culture.
绩效,你需要比你最初认为的更努力、更深入、更长久地思考你的价值观。我认为很多公司实际上没有做的一件事是,他们面试的目的是技术适合或技能适合,这是该领域的一种能力,但他们实际上面试的目的不是文化适合,是否有人会真正相信并遵循使命。我认为这是一个大的,大的不。我认为你可以有世界上最聪明的工程师,但如果他们不相信的使命,他们不会倾注他们的心和灵魂。如果你真的开始思考文化,从面试过程,到绩效评估,再到确保这是一个日常习惯,那么你在创造一个伟大的文化方面会走得更远。
One final point made here, culture, just like customer service or fitness, is like motherhood and apple pie. Everybody wants to provide great customer service, every company wants to have great culture. What they fail to do is make it a daily habit. You just can't be fit, if you don't do it as a daily habit. Eventually you get out of shape, then you get fat, and then you say, Oh I have to go on a crash diet to get back into shape. That doesn't quite work, and the same is true with something like culture. So I think we checked all of these off, so we can go into Q and A with Brian.
最后一点,文化,就像客户服务或健身一样,就像母亲和苹果派。每个人都想提供优质的客户服务,每个公司都想拥有优质的文化。他们没有做到的是把它变成一种日常习惯。如果你不把它作为日常习惯,你就不可能健康。最终你会变胖,然后发胖,然后你会说,哦,我得节食才能恢复身材。这不太管用,文化之类的东西也是如此。所以我想我们把这些都检查过了,这样我们就可以和布赖恩讨论问答了。
Brian Chesky: Hello everybody. It’s quiet in here, I'll be honest, now I feel a little less on edge. Nothing worse than a room full of people really, really quiet staring at you, but now I feel better.
布莱恩·切斯基:大家好。老实说,这里很安静,现在我觉得不那么紧张了。没有什么比满屋子的人安静地盯着你更糟糕的了,但是现在我感觉好多了。
Alfred Lin: Well I did it for five or ten minutes, you can do it a little longer. So Brian, could you talk about the process by which you came to understand that culture was important to AirBnB and building a company?
艾尔弗雷德·林:我做了五到十分钟,你可以再做一点。那么,布莱恩,你能谈谈你认识到文化对AirBnB和建立公司很重要的过程吗?
Brian Chesky: Yeah, so I think one of the things we realized is, to just give you, I won’t tell the full story of how Airbnb came to be. Some of you may know it. So here’s the very short version the story, Airbnb wasn't meant to be the company we were trying to start. I quit my job, I was living in LA. One day I drove to San Francisco, became roommates with my friend from college, from the Rhode Island School of Design, Joe Gebbia, and I had one thousand dollars in the bank and the rent was one thousand one hundred and fifty dollars. So that weekend this international design convention was coming to San Francisco, all the hotels were sold out, so we decided to turn the house into a bed and breakfast for the conference. I didn’t have a bed, Joe had three air beds, we pulled them out of the closet and called it The Air Bed and Breakfast. That's how the company started.
布莱恩·切斯基:是的,所以我想我们意识到的一件事是,给你,我不会告诉你Airbnb是如何形成的全部故事。你们有些人可能知道。所以这里的故事非常简短的版本,Airbnb并不意味着我们要开始的公司。我辞职了,我住在洛杉矶。有一天,我开车去旧金山,和我大学毕业的朋友,罗德岛设计学院的乔·格比亚成了室友,我在银行存了一千美元,房租是一千一百五十美元。所以那个周末,这个国际设计大会要来旧金山,所有的酒店都卖完了,所以我们决定把房子变成会议的早餐和床。我没有床,乔有三张气垫床,我们把它们从衣柜里拿出来,称之为气垫床和早餐。公司就是这样成立的。
I recall the story ten thousand times by the way, some version of that story, and I didn't think I'd ever tell that a second time. I remember growing up, I also went to college, my parents were social workers and never thought about me going to art school. They had worried that maybe I would not get a job after college, which I’m sure most parents worry about. Make sure you promise me you get a job with health insurance, I end up starting Airbnb. I remember her telling me, I guess you never got the job with health insurance.
顺便说一句,我记得这个故事有一万次了,是那个故事的某个版本,我想我不会再讲第二次了。我记得长大后,我也上过大学,父母是社工,从来没有想过我要上艺术学校。他们担心我可能在大学毕业后找不到工作,我相信大多数家长都很担心。一定要向我保证你能找到一份有医疗保险的工作,我最终会创办Airbnb。我记得她告诉我,我猜你从来没有得到过医疗保险的工作。
We are going to go a level deeper in that. There's another great element of high performing teams that I really like. Which is this pyramid that was created by Patrick Lencioni, and he wrote this book, “The Five Dysfunctions of a Team.” And the reason this is interesting is he talks about the breakdowns of the team. A lot of teams break down because they have no trust and even if you had trust, why do you need trust? If you have trust, you can actually have debates and conflict and get to the right answer. If you don't have conflicts and debate, it's the blind leading the blind. How do you actually know you got to the right answer before you commit to something? So people are not actually wanting to commit, they're afraid of committing.
我们将更深入地了解这一点。我非常喜欢高绩效团队的另一个重要元素。这个金字塔是由Patrick Lencioni创造的,他写了这本书,“一个团队的五种功能失调。”有趣的是他谈到了团队的崩溃。很多团队崩溃是因为他们没有信任,即使你有信任,你为什么需要信任?如果你有信任,你就可以进行辩论和冲突,找到正确的答案。如果你没有冲突和争论,那就是盲人在引导盲人。在你做出承诺之前,你怎么知道你得到了正确的答案?所以人们其实并不想承诺,他们害怕承诺。
Let’s say you get to the next level when you are actually able to commit. What goes wrong then? It's usually because people are not held accountable to things that they committed to. And if people are not held accountable to the things that they committed to, then they can’t get results. If you think about the company as a black box and results, whether it's financial, whether you produce a great product, or anything like that as the output, one of the major inputs is the culture of the company. Some other best practices, we are actually going to talk though in the Q and A because I think they are going to blend into the conversation, is that you want to incorporate your mission into your values, we talked about that.
假设你达到了一个新的水平,当你真的能够承诺的时候。那怎么了?这通常是因为人们没有对他们所承诺的事情负责。如果人们对他们所承诺的事情不负责任,那么他们就不能得到结果。如果你把公司看作一个黑匣子和结果,不管是财务上的,还是你生产出了一个好产品,或者其他类似的东西作为产出,一个主要的投入就是公司的文化。其他一些最佳实践,我们实际上会在问答中讨论,因为我认为它们会融入到谈话中,就是你想把你的使命融入到你的价值观中,我们已经讨论过了。
Performance, you need to think a bit harder, deeper, longer about your values than you might initially think you need to. One of the things I think a lot of companies don't actually do is, they interview for technical fit or skill fit, a competency in that realm, but they don’t actually interview for the culture fit, whether someone will actually believe in and follow the mission. I think that is a big, big no no. I think you can have the smartest engineer in the world but if they don't believe the mission they are not going to pour their heart and soul into it. And that's one of the things where if you actually start thinking about culture, from the interview process, to performance reviews, to making sure that’s a daily habit, you get a lot further with making a great culture.
绩效,你需要比你最初认为的更努力、更深入、更长久地思考你的价值观。我认为很多公司实际上没有做的一件事是,他们面试的目的是技术适合或技能适合,这是该领域的一种能力,但他们实际上面试的目的不是文化适合,是否有人会真正相信并遵循使命。我认为这是一个大的,大的不。我认为你可以有世界上最聪明的工程师,但如果他们不相信的使命,他们不会倾注他们的心和灵魂。如果你真的开始思考文化,从面试过程,到绩效评估,再到确保这是一个日常习惯,那么你在创造一个伟大的文化方面会走得更远。
One final point made here, culture, just like customer service or fitness, is like motherhood and apple pie. Everybody wants to provide great customer service, every company wants to have great culture. What they fail to do is make it a daily habit. You just can't be fit, if you don't do it as a daily habit. Eventually you get out of shape, then you get fat, and then you say, Oh I have to go on a crash diet to get back into shape. That doesn't quite work, and the same is true with something like culture. So I think we checked all of these off, so we can go into Q and A with Brian.
最后一点,文化,就像客户服务或健身一样,就像母亲和苹果派。每个人都想提供优质的客户服务,每个公司都想拥有优质的文化。他们没有做到的是把它变成一种日常习惯。如果你不把它作为日常习惯,你就不可能健康。最终你会变胖,然后发胖,然后你会说,哦,我得节食才能恢复身材。这不太管用,文化之类的东西也是如此。所以我想我们把这些都检查过了,这样我们就可以和布赖恩讨论问答了。
Brian Chesky: Hello everybody. It’s quiet in here, I'll be honest, now I feel a little less on edge. Nothing worse than a room full of people really, really quiet staring at you, but now I feel better.
布莱恩·切斯基:大家好。老实说,这里很安静,现在我觉得不那么紧张了。没有什么比满屋子的人安静地盯着你更糟糕的了,但是现在我感觉好多了。
Alfred Lin: Well I did it for five or ten minutes, you can do it a little longer. So Brian, could you talk about the process by which you came to understand that culture was important to AirBnB and building a company?
艾尔弗雷德·林:我做了五到十分钟,你可以再做一点。那么,布莱恩,你能谈谈你认识到文化对AirBnB和建立公司很重要的过程吗?
Brian Chesky: Yeah, so I think one of the things we realized is, to just give you, I won’t tell the full story of how Airbnb came to be. Some of you may know it. So here’s the very short version the story, Airbnb wasn't meant to be the company we were trying to start. I quit my job, I was living in LA. One day I drove to San Francisco, became roommates with my friend from college, from the Rhode Island School of Design, Joe Gebbia, and I had one thousand dollars in the bank and the rent was one thousand one hundred and fifty dollars. So that weekend this international design convention was coming to San Francisco, all the hotels were sold out, so we decided to turn the house into a bed and breakfast for the conference. I didn’t have a bed, Joe had three air beds, we pulled them out of the closet and called it The Air Bed and Breakfast. That's how the company started.
布莱恩·切斯基:是的,所以我想我们意识到的一件事是,给你,我不会告诉你Airbnb是如何形成的全部故事。你们有些人可能知道。所以这里的故事非常简短的版本,Airbnb并不意味着我们要开始的公司。我辞职了,我住在洛杉矶。有一天,我开车去旧金山,和我大学毕业的朋友,罗德岛设计学院的乔·格比亚成了室友,我在银行存了一千美元,房租是一千一百五十美元。所以那个周末,这个国际设计大会要来旧金山,所有的酒店都卖完了,所以我们决定把房子变成会议的早餐和床。我没有床,乔有三张气垫床,我们把它们从衣柜里拿出来,称之为气垫床和早餐。公司就是这样成立的。
I recall the story ten thousand times by the way, some version of that story, and I didn't think I'd ever tell that a second time. I remember growing up, I also went to college, my parents were social workers and never thought about me going to art school. They had worried that maybe I would not get a job after college, which I’m sure most parents worry about. Make sure you promise me you get a job with health insurance, I end up starting Airbnb. I remember her telling me, I guess you never got the job with health insurance.
顺便说一句,我记得这个故事有一万次了,是那个故事的某个版本,我想我不会再讲第二次了。我记得长大后,我也上过大学,父母是社工,从来没有想过我要上艺术学校。他们担心我可能在大学毕业后找不到工作,我相信大多数家长都很担心。一定要向我保证你能找到一份有医疗保险的工作,我最终会创办Airbnb。我记得她告诉我,我猜你从来没有得到过医疗保险的工作。
Alfred Lin: How long did it take you to hire your first employee?
艾尔弗雷德·林:你花了多长时间雇佣了第一个员工?
Brian Chesky: So the first employee was our first engineer, I think we looked for him for four or five months. I probably looked through thousands of people and interviewed hundreds of people.
布莱恩·切斯基:所以第一个雇员是我们的第一个工程师,我想我们找了他四五个月。我可能浏览了成千上万的人,采访了数百人。
Alfred Lin: By then, when you hired him, when did you write it? Was it on day one or two or was it three?
艾尔弗雷德·林:那时候,你雇他的时候,是什么时候写的?是第一天还是第二天还是第三天?
Brian Chesky: I think we started working on it around the time of Y Combinator, which would've been January 2009. It was probably a process that evolved over the course of six to seven months. We finished Y Combinator in April 2009, hired our first engineer in July something like that. Probably six months. Some people ask why did you spend so much time on hiring your first engineer. I think bringing in your first engineer is like bringing in a DNA chip to the company. This person, if we're successful, there were going to be a thousand people just like him or her in that company, it still wasn't a matter of getting somebody to build the next three features we need the ship for users. There was something much more long-term and much more enduring which was, do I want to work with one hundred thousand more people like this? Now, you want diversity to play, you want diversity of background, age. You don't want diversity of values, you want very homogenous beliefs. That’s the one thing that shouldn’t be diverse.
布莱恩·切斯基:我想我们是在Y Combinator的时候开始研究的,那应该是2009年1月。这可能是一个经过6到7个月演变的过程。我们在2009年4月完成了Y Combinator,7月雇佣了我们的第一个工程师。大概六个月吧。有人问你为什么花那么多时间雇佣你的第一个工程师。我认为引进你的第一个工程师就像给公司引进一个DNA芯片。这个人,如果我们成功了,在那家公司里会有一千个像他或她一样的人,这仍然不是一个让人来为用户构建我们需要的下三个功能的问题。有一种更长期、更持久的东西,那就是,我想再和10万这样的人一起工作吗?现在,你想要多元化的游戏,你想要多元化的背景,年龄。你不想要价值观的多样性,你想要非常同质的信仰。这是一件不应该多样化的事情。
Alfred Lin: So what were these values?
林:那么这些价值观是什么呢?
Brian Chesky: Six core values, I’ll talk about maybe three of them. So the first core value we talk about is champion in mission. And what it really means is that we want to hire people that are here for a mission. We don’t want people here because they think we have a great valuation, they like our office design, they need a job, or they think it’s hot. We want people to be here for the one thing that will never change, and that’s our mission. And just to tell you a quick story about our mission, Airbnb, a lot of people describe it as a way to book a room or book a house and travel around the world. And that’s what we do, but that is not why we do it. To answer the question on what our mission is, is to tell you a story I think it describes it.
布莱恩·切斯基:六个核心价值观,我将谈论其中三个。所以我们谈论的第一个核心价值是使命中的冠军。真正的意思是我们想雇佣来这里执行任务的人。我们不希望人们在这里,因为他们认为我们有一个伟大的估值,他们喜欢我们的办公室设计,他们需要一份工作,或他们认为这是热。我们希望人们来到这里是为了一件永远不会改变的事情,这就是我们的使命。告诉你一个关于我们的任务Airbnb的简单故事,很多人把它描述为一种预订房间或房子并环游世界的方式。我们就是这么做的,但这不是我们这么做的原因。回答关于我们的任务是什么的问题,就是给你们讲一个故事,我认为它描述了这个故事。
In 2012, I met a host named Sebastian, we do these new jobs around the world where we do meet ups. Sebastian is probably late fifties in north London. Sebastian looks at me and says, "Brian there is this word you never use on your website." And I say, "What's that word?" And he says, "That word is friendship. I would love to read a story about friendship." I said, "Okay read me a story about friendship." He says, "Six months ago the brunt of riots broke out in front of my home and I was very scared. The next day my mom called me to make sure I was ok, I said yeah mom I’m ok. And she goes, what about the house?" He says, "The house is OK as well." He said, "Here's the interesting thing, from the time the riots broke out to the time my mom called me was a twenty four hour window of time. In the periods between that time, seven of my previous Airbnb guests called me just to make sure I was okay." He said, "Think about that, seven of my own guests called me before my own mother did."
2012年,我遇到了一位名叫塞巴斯蒂安的主持人,我们在世界各地做这些新工作,在那里我们见面。塞巴斯蒂安在伦敦北部大概50多岁了。塞巴斯蒂安看着我说,“布莱恩,有一个词你在你的网站上从来没有用过。”我说,“那个词是什么?”他说,“这个词就是友谊。我很想读一个关于友谊的故事。“我说,”好吧,给我读一个关于友谊的故事。“他说,”六个月前,暴乱的冲击在我家门口爆发,我非常害怕。第二天我妈妈打电话给我确认我没事,我说是的,妈妈,我没事。她说:“那房子呢?”他说,“房子也没问题。”他说,“有趣的是,从骚乱爆发到我妈妈打电话给我,时间窗长达24小时。在那段时间里,我以前的7位Airbnb客人打电话给我,只是想确定我是否没事。“他说,”想想看,我自己的7位客人在我母亲之前打电话给我。”
I think that says more about his mother than his guests. But in this summer on a typical night or a peak night, we wouldhave four hundred twenty five thousand people staying in homes and living together and they were coming from a hundred and ninety different countries in the world which is every country except North Korea, Iran, Syria, Cuba. So just hearing that story, at our core that is what we are about. That’s much more than just booking a room or traveling. That what we are about is we want to help bring the world together. We want to do that by giving a sense of belonging anywhere you go. Our mission is to belong anywhere. So five years from now, twenty years from now, maybe we're still selling rooms and homes to meet in or not, but I can guarantee you we're always going be about a sense of belonging and bringing people together. And that's the more enduring idea.
我想这说明他母亲比他的客人更重要。但是在这个夏天,在一个典型的夜晚或一个高峰的夜晚,我们会有42.5万人住在家里,住在一起,他们来自世界上190个不同的国家,除了朝鲜、伊朗、叙利亚、古巴以外的每个国家。所以只要听到这个故事,我们的核心就是这个。这不仅仅是预订房间或旅行。我们要做的是帮助世界团结起来。我们想让你在任何地方都有归属感。我们的使命是属于任何地方。所以五年后,二十年后,也许我们还在出售房间和房子,以满足或不满足,但我可以向你保证,我们将永远是一种归属感,把人们聚集在一起。这是一个更持久的想法。
So when we hire people, the first thing to make sure it is that, if that is your mission, you need to champion your mission. You champion the mission by living the mission. Do you believe in it? Do you have stories about it? Do you use the product? Do you believe in the product? I used to ask crazy questions, one of the crazy questions Sam reminds me of, I use to interview people. So I interviewed the first three hundred employees at Airbnb which people think I’m really neurotic and they may also be true. I used to ask them a question, if you had a year left to live would you take this job? I amended it, people who say yes probably don't like their families. So I changed it to ten years. I feel like you should use whatever time you have left to live. Whatever you want to do in those last ten years you should just do. I really want you to think about that, that was enough time for you to do something you really cared about and the answer doesn't have to be this company. I say fine if what you’re meant to do is travel or start a company just do that, don't come here. Go do that.
因此,当我们雇佣员工时,首先要确保的是,如果这是你的使命,你需要捍卫你的使命。你通过实践使命来捍卫使命。你相信吗?你有关于它的故事吗?你用这个产品吗?你相信这个产品吗?我经常问一些疯狂的问题,山姆让我想起的一个疯狂的问题,我经常采访别人。所以我采访了Airbnb的前三百名员工,他们认为我真的很神经质,他们也可能是真的。我经常问他们一个问题,如果你还有一年的生命,你会接受这份工作吗?我修改了它,说“是”的人可能不喜欢他们的家庭。所以我改成十年。我觉得你应该用剩下的时间活着。在过去的十年里,无论你想做什么,你都应该做。我真的想让你想想,这足够让你做一些你真正关心的事情,答案不一定是这家公司。如果你打算去旅行或是开公司,那我可以这么说,不要来这里。去吧。
So there is this old parable about two men laying bricks. Somebody comes up to the first man and says what are you doing? I’m building a wall. He asks the other guy, he says I’m building a Cathedral. There's a job and there is a calling. We want to hire people not only looking for jobs, but a calling. And that's the first value, champion the mission.
所以有一个关于两个人砌砖的古老寓言。有人走到第一个人面前说你在干什么?我在建一堵墙。他问另一个人,他说我在建一座大教堂。有工作也有召唤。我们想雇佣的不仅是找工作的人,还有打电话的人。这是第一个价值观,捍卫使命。
I don’t want to take all the time, I will talk about just one more. The second value relates to being frugal and I will tell you a story. By the way, all the founding stories of your company end up becoming the things that you keep talking about to thousands of people, kind of like a child, that these things keep coming back later in life. So Airbnb, I think Marc Andreessen said in the last talk that it was the worst idea that ever worked. I remember people thinking we were crazy, I remember telling people about the idea, I actually told Paul Graham, I said we have this idea it’s called Airbnb. He asked, people are actually doing this? I said, yeah. Question was, what's wrong with them? So I knew the interview wasn't going well and in the interview Paul Graham I think wasn't going to accept us. And we told the story of how we funded the company and here's how it goes. We're introduced, Michael Seibel, who is a partner of Y Combinator, introduced me and Joe to like fifteen investors in the Valley, including some of the ones that have been here and all of them said no to the company. They could have bought ten percent of the company for one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. They all said no, they thought it was crazy. No one would ever stay in someone's home.
我不想占用所有的时间,我只想再谈一次。第二个价值与节俭有关,我将给你讲一个故事。顺便说一句,你公司所有的创始故事最终都变成了你对成千上万的人说的话,就像一个孩子,这些话在以后的生活中不断出现。所以Airbnb,我想Marc Andreessen在上次的演讲中说这是有史以来最糟糕的想法。我记得有人认为我们疯了,我记得告诉过别人这个想法,我实际上告诉了保罗·格雷厄姆,我说我们有这个想法,它叫Airbnb。他问,人们真的在这样做吗?我说,是的。问题是,他们怎么了?所以我知道面试不顺利,在面试保罗·格雷厄姆的时候,我认为他不会接受我们。我们讲述了我们如何资助这家公司的故事,下面是它的发展过程。据介绍,迈克尔·塞贝尔是Y Combinator的合伙人,他向我和乔介绍了硅谷的15位投资者,包括一些来过这里的投资者,他们都对公司说不。他们本可以用15万美元买下公司10%的股份。他们都说不,他们觉得这太疯狂了。没有人会呆在别人家里。
So we ended up funding the company with credit cards and you know those binders kids in school put baseball cards in? We had to put them in those, we had to put them somewhere. That’s how many credit cards we had and we were completely in debt. And in the fall of 2008, we provided housing for the Democratic and Republican National Convention. We had this crazy idea because we weren't selling a lot of homes. In the year after we launched, we had a hundred people a day visiting our website and two bookings, which is generally bad. It’s like releasing a song and a year later three people are listing to it a day. It’s probably not going to be a very popular song. But I believed in it. Joe and Nate believed in it.
所以我们最后用信用卡资助了公司,你知道学校里的孩子把棒球卡放进去的活页夹吗?我们必须把它们放在里面,我们必须把它们放在某个地方。这就是我们有多少信用卡,我们完全负债了。2008年秋天,我们为民主党和共和党全国代表大会提供了住房。我们有这个疯狂的想法,因为我们没有卖很多房子。在我们推出后的一年里,我们每天有100人访问我们的网站和两次预订,这通常是不好的。这就像发行一首歌,一年后,一天有三个人上市。这首歌可能不会很流行。但我相信。乔和内特相信这一点。
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So we are completely in debt, right, and we get this idea. We are an air bed and breakfast providing housing for the Democratic Republican National Convention. What if we made a breakfast cereal for like the Democratic National Convention? And we came up with this Obama themed cereal. And we called it Obama-O’s, the breakfast of change. Then we came up with a Republican themed cereal for John McCain. We found out he was a Captain in the navy. So we came up with… Captain-McCain’s, a maverick in every bite. We had zero dollars and without any money, we tried calling General Mills they told us to stop calling them or they would get a restraining order so that didn't work. We found a local, though an alumni of RISD, who made a thousand boxes deal for us. We ended up sending them to press and eventually within a week it got on national television, national news. We made forty thousand dollars selling breakfast cereal.
所以我们完全负债累累,对吧,我们有了这个想法。我们是一个空气床和早餐提供住房民主党共和党全国代表大会。如果我们为民主党全国代表大会做早餐麦片呢?我们想到了奥巴马主题的麦片。我们称之为Obama-O's,变革的早餐。然后我们为约翰·麦凯恩准备了一份共和党主题的麦片粥。我们发现他是海军上尉。所以我们想出了…麦凯恩上尉的,一个特立独行的人。我们没有钱,没有钱,我们试着打电话给通用磨坊,他们告诉我们不要再打电话了,否则他们会得到一个限制令,这样就行不通了。我们找到了一个当地人,虽然是RISD的校友,他为我们做了一千箱生意。我们最终把他们送到了新闻界,最终在一周之内,它登上了国家电视台,国家新闻台。我们卖早餐麦片赚了四万美元。
In 2008 we made five thousand dollars from our website and we made forty thousand dollars selling breakfast cereal. I remember my mom asking so are a you cereal company now. And that wasn't that bad part, the bad part was the honest answer which was technically, yes. But the reason I tell that is our second core value is to be a cereal entrepreneur. I'm sorry for the cheesy pun. But be a cereal entrepreneur. We really mean, is that we believe constraints bring out the creativity. When you raise eight hundred million dollars suddenly all that scrappiness, it's easy to lose that scrappiness. It’s easier for people to tell you I just need this fifty thousand dollar contract. I need this, I need that. When people are desperate and not being a little bit frugal, not being creative, or tell me they can't do something, I'll just take a box of cereal and even the suggestion of Obama-O’s is you need to be scrappy and frugal. So again a lot of the founding DNA of your company becomes these values, these principles. Everyone knows that if you don't give a crap you shouldn't be here. And it doesn't mean you have to give a crap it just means you have to to be here. You also have to be creative to be an entrepreneur and super scrappy. And these are some of the values we learned.
2008年,我们从网站上赚了五千美元,卖早餐麦片赚了四万美元。我记得我妈妈问你现在有没有谷类食品公司。这不是不好的部分,不好的部分是诚实的回答,严格来说,是的。但我之所以这么说,是因为我们的第二个核心价值观是成为一名谷物企业家。我很抱歉你的双关语。但是做一个谷物企业家。我们真正的意思是,我们相信约束会激发创造力。当你筹集到8亿美元的资金时,突然间,你就失去了斗志。人们更容易告诉你我只需要这份5万美元的合同。我需要这个,我需要那个。当人们绝望了,没有一点节俭,没有创造力,或者告诉我他们不能做什么的时候,我只会拿一盒谷类食品,甚至奥巴马的建议是你需要精打细算和节俭。所以你们公司的很多创始DNA又变成了这些价值观,这些原则。每个人都知道如果你不在乎,你就不应该在这里。但这并不意味着你必须要给一个垃圾它只是意味着你必须在这里。你也必须有创造力,成为一个企业家和超级斗志。这些是我们学到的一些价值观。
Alfred Lin: So you guys should start to think about questions when we open up to questions from the audience but I have a few more questions to ask. So this all sounds nice, stories are great. The people here are a pretty skeptical group. It’s a CS department class, probably left brain focused. This feels like a softie, right brain focus. How does having a strong culture help you make important, tough decisions?
艾尔弗雷德·林:所以当我们向观众提问时,你们应该开始思考问题,但我还有几个问题要问。听起来不错,故事也很棒。这里的人是一个相当怀疑的群体。是CS系的课,可能是左脑集中。这感觉像是一个柔软的右脑焦点。拥有强大的文化如何帮助你做出重要而艰难的决定?
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Brian Chesky: Well I think that having it so, here's the thing about culture. There are three things they never tell you about culture. First thing is they never tell you anything about culture. No one talks about culture and no one ever tells the need to have strong culture. So there's tons of articles about building a great product, there's tons of articles on growth and adaption, and a few things about culture. It’s a mystical thing that's soft and fuzzy. That's the first problem. The second problem is it is hard to measure. Things that are hard to measure often get discounted. These are two very hard things. The third thing, the biggest problem, it doesn't pay off in the short term. If you wanted to start up a company and sell it in one year, the one thing I would tell you to do is fuck up the culture. Just hire people quickly. Culture makes you hire really slowly, makes you deliberate about your decisions that in the near term can slow progress. Putting an investment into the company short term.
布莱恩·切斯基:我想既然如此,文化就是这样。关于文化,有三件事他们从不告诉你。首先,他们从不告诉你任何关于文化的事情。没有人谈论文化,也没有人说过需要有强大的文化。所以有很多关于创造一个伟大产品的文章,有很多关于成长和适应的文章,还有一些关于文化的文章。这是一个神秘的东西,柔软而模糊。这是第一个问题。第二个问题是很难衡量。难以衡量的东西往往会打折扣。这是两件非常困难的事情。第三件事,最大的问题,短期内没有回报。如果你想在一年内创办一家公司并卖掉它,我会告诉你的一件事就是搞砸企业文化。快雇人吧。文化让你的招聘非常缓慢,让你深思熟虑你的决定,在短期内可能会减缓进展。向公司短期投资。
First thing is the need to be very clear about what's unique to you that you stand for. Once you do that, you need to hire people that believe in that. You need to make sure you hire and fire based on these values. One thing we do is constantly repeat over and over again when we interview, we want to make sure they are world class and fit the culture. The first thing I used to ask people at the end of the interview, I would say if you can hire, this is a functional question, if you could hire anybody in the world, would you hire the person sitting across from you? If our vision is the best in the world, why aren’t we hiring the best in the world? Every single person is meant to hire a person better than the previous people. You are constantly raising the bar. Then we have separate people called core values interviewers who aren’t in the function. So it you are an engineer, the core values interviewers are never engineers because we don't want them to be biased and say well I know how good they are. And they interview just for values, to make sure that people care about the same thing. And we said no to a lot of really great people because we just didn't feel right about them being with us long term. So that's one of the things.
第一件事是需要非常清楚你所代表的独特之处。一旦你这么做了,你就需要雇佣相信这一点的人。你需要确保你雇佣和解雇基于这些价值观。我们要做的一件事就是在面试时不断重复一遍又一遍,我们要确保他们是世界级的,符合文化。在面试结束时,我经常问人们的第一件事,我会说如果你能雇佣,这是一个功能性的问题,如果你能雇佣世界上任何人,你会雇佣坐在你对面的人吗?如果我们的愿景是世界上最好的,为什么我们不雇佣世界上最好的呢?每个人都应该雇佣一个比以前更好的人。你在不断提高标准。然后,我们有单独的人,称为核心价值观面试官,他们不在这个职能范围内。所以如果你是一个工程师,面试官的核心价值观永远不是工程师,因为我们不希望他们有偏见,说我知道他们有多好。他们面试只是为了价值观,确保人们关心同一件事。我们对很多真正伟大的人说不,因为我们只是觉得他们和我们长期在一起不合适。所以这是其中之一。
Some other examples of when we have had to make hard decisions: in mid-2011, we were mostly United States and we had this internet clone funded by these guys called the Samwer brothers, anyone ever hear of them? They basically clone internet companies. They recently went public. They take American websites and clone them and then quickly try to sell them back to you. It’s kind of like putting a gun to your head. So they had done this to Groupon, Groupon was the fastest growing site in the world ever. They stopped doing Groupon and started cloning us, and this is back when we had forty employees, we had raised seven million dollars. They cloned us and in thirty days they hired four hundred people. And they wanted to sell the company and if they couldn’t, they were going to destroy us around the world.
其他一些我们不得不做出艰难决定的例子:2011年年中,我们主要是在美国,我们有一个互联网克隆人,由这些人资助,他们叫萨姆威尔兄弟,有人听说过他们吗?他们基本上是克隆互联网公司。他们最近上市了。他们把美国的网站克隆出来,然后很快把它们卖给你。就像用枪指着你的头。所以他们对Groupon这样做了,Groupon是世界上增长最快的网站。他们不再做Groupon,开始克隆我们,这又回到了我们有40名员工的时候,我们筹集了700万美元。他们克隆了我们,三十天内雇了四百人。他们想卖掉这家公司,如果他们做不到,他们会在全世界毁灭我们。
The problem with Airbnb is if we are not everywhere around the world, a travel site not being in Europe is like your phone not having email, it doesn't actually work. So we were kind of in trouble. We had this conversation, it was a pragmatic decision of should we acquire them and then there was the values decision. The pragmatic one probably said buy them because you can't risk losing international, so just guarantee you are going to get international. We ended up not buying them. The reason we ended up not buying them was I just didn't like the culture. I didn’t want to bring in those four hundred people. I felt like we were missionaries and they were mercenaries. I didn't feel like they were doing it for the beliefs, I thought they were doing it to make a lot of money very quickly.
Airbnb的问题是,如果我们不在世界各地,一个旅游网站不在欧洲就像你的手机没有电子邮件,它实际上无法工作。所以我们有点麻烦了。我们进行了这次谈话,这是一个务实的决定,我们应该获得他们,然后是价值观的决定。务实的人可能会说,买它们是因为你不能冒失去国际的风险,所以只要保证你会得到国际。我们最后没买。我们最终不买的原因是我不喜欢这里的文化。我不想让那四百人进来。我觉得我们是传教士,他们是雇佣军。我不觉得他们这么做是为了信仰,我以为他们这么做是为了很快赚大钱。
I believed in a war, missionaries would outlast and endure mercenaries. I also felt like the best revenge against an internet clone was just to make them run the company long term. You had the baby, now you've got to raise it. So that's what we ended up doing and that was a very controversial decision. A lot of people were telling me you should buy this company, we didn't and I think it worked out
我相信在战争中,传教士会比雇佣兵活得更久。我也觉得对网络克隆人最好的报复就是让他们长期经营公司。你生了孩子,现在你得把它养大。所以这就是我们最终要做的,这是一个非常有争议的决定。很多人都告诉我你应该买下这家公司,但我们没有,我想结果是这样的
Alfred Lin: What percentage of revenue comes from Europe?
艾尔弗雷德·林:收入的百分之几来自欧洲?
Brian Chesky: More than fifty percent
布莱恩·切斯基:超过百分之五十
Alfred Lin: I think it worked out. Okay, anybody have any questions? I can keep going . No one? One statement we had at Zappos is culture and brand were two sides of the same coin. Airbnb has a great culture and a great brand. Do you care to talk about branding, it’s kind of a weak thing, it's a value we don't tend to focus on.
艾尔弗雷德·林:我想成功了。好的,有人有什么问题吗?我可以继续。没有人?我们在捷步达康的一个声明是,文化和品牌是同一枚硬币的两面。Airbnb拥有伟大的文化和品牌。你想谈谈品牌吗,这是一个薄弱环节,是一个我们不想关注的价值。
Brian Chesky: I actually just said that to Sam. I think Silicon Valley is not historically really strong or we don't talk about culture and brand very much. They are two sides of the same coin. So culture, like the principles and the beliefs you have inside a company that you want people to be aligned with long term, whatever happens inside the company eventually comes out, you can’t hold it in. And brand is really the promise outside the company that everyone identifies with. So I think having a clear mission and making sure that you know that mission and the mission comes through the company, is probably the best thing you can do for both culture and values.
布莱恩·切斯基:事实上,我刚刚对山姆说了。我认为硅谷在历史上并不是很强大,或者我们不太谈论文化和品牌。它们是同一枚硬币的两面。所以文化,就像你在公司里的原则和信念,你希望人们长期保持一致,不管公司内部发生什么,最终都会暴露出来,你无法坚持。而品牌其实是公司之外人人认同的承诺。所以我认为有一个明确的使命,并确保你知道这个使命和使命是通过公司来实现的,这可能是你能为文化和价值观做的最好的事情。
And then the second thing you know is that your brand, the way people think about you and your company, is often decided by your brand evangelists who are your employees. If you have a weak culture, we often think that companies that hire employees, people that are deeply passionate, create companies that customers are really passion about. Those are companies with strong brands. And so Zappos had a really strong brand. A lot of companies, Google, that cared deeply about culture, they actually have a question, is this person Google? Which is meant to be like the catch all for the digital culture. It was a very strong culture, Google has a unique, there's no such thing as a good or bad culture, it’s either a strong or weak culture. And a good culture for someone else may not be a good culture for you.
其次,你要知道,你的品牌,人们对你和你的公司的看法,往往是由你的品牌传道者决定的,他们是你的员工。如果你有一个薄弱的文化,我们往往认为,公司雇用的员工,人是非常热情,创造公司的客户是真正的热情。这些公司拥有强大的品牌。所以Zappos有一个非常强大的品牌。很多公司,谷歌,非常关心文化,他们实际上有一个问题,这个人是谷歌吗?这就像是数字文化的包罗万象。它是一个非常强大的文化,谷歌有一个独特的,没有一个好的或坏的文化,它不是一个强大的或弱的文化。而一个好的文化对别人来说可能不是一个好的文化对你来说。
So I think brand is incredibly important as well. Brand is really the connection of you with your customers and so if you have an incredibly strong culture, the brand will come through. The final thing to say about brand is a lot of people that talk about their brand talk about what they sell. So if you’re Apple, one way of doing the same, we sell computers and the new screens are larger and faster and they talk about bits and bytes.
所以我认为品牌也非常重要。品牌实际上是你与客户之间的纽带,因此,如果你有一种难以置信的强大文化,品牌就会脱颖而出。关于品牌,最后要说的是很多人谈论他们的品牌,谈论他们的销售。因此,如果你是苹果公司,我们销售的电脑和新的屏幕更大更快,他们谈论的是位和字节。
I remember Steve Jobs had this really important talk where he says the way to win, this is 1997, isn't to talk about bits and bytes. The way to win is talk about what we value, what our core values are, we believe passionate people can change the world. And that was how they introduced a different campaign. So Apple, before they had this huge renaissance, became the most valuable company in the world. They did the Think Different campaign, which is basically saying this is what we believe in. That if you buy an Apple computer, you're also saying I believe in this too. And there has to be a deeper core belief, and if that doesn’t happen, you’re a utility. And utilities get sold at commodity prices.
我记得史蒂夫·乔布斯有一次非常重要的演讲,他说赢得胜利的方法,这是1997年,不是谈论比特和字节。成功的方法是谈论我们的价值观,我们的核心价值观是什么,我们相信充满激情的人可以改变世界。这就是为什么他们推出了一个不同的运动。因此,在苹果公司经历这场巨大的复兴之前,它已经成为世界上最有价值的公司。他们做了不同的思考运动,基本上就是说这就是我们的信仰。如果你买了一台苹果电脑,你也在说我也相信这一点。必须有一个更深层的核心信念,如果这不发生,你就是一个效用。公用事业以商品价格出售。
Alfred Lin: The question is how do you know how to communicate this company culture or core value to the outside world?
林毅夫:问题是你如何知道如何向外界传达这种公司文化或核心价值观?
Brian Chesky: So the question is, how do you communicate what Airbnb does in the earlier days. Well we learned a lot because in the early days we communicated like a utility. We actually said Airbnb is a cheap, affordable alternative to hotels. Our tag line was forget hotels, save money with Airbnb. And over time we felt like that was, this was way back in the day, we felt like that was way too limiting, that it undercut the idea. We changed our tag line to travel like a human. Which we haven’t kept, but it was basically meant to say that we believe in a certain kind of world and we really feel like travel is mass produced. You feel isolated, you feel like a stranger, and we want to bring the world back to the place where it feels like a village again, where the service is coming from other people, where you have this feeling you belong, and you are treated like a human.
布莱恩·切斯基:所以问题是,你如何传达Airbnb在过去几天所做的事情。嗯,我们学到了很多,因为在早期我们沟通像一个实用程序。事实上,我们说Airbnb是一个廉价、实惠的酒店替代品。我们的标签线是忘记酒店,节省与Airbnb的钱。随着时间的推移,我们觉得这是,这是回到过去的一天,我们觉得这是太有限,它削弱了这个想法。我们把标签线改成了像人一样旅行。我们没有保留,但基本上是想说,我们相信一个特定的世界,我们真的觉得旅行是大规模生产的。你感到孤立,你觉得自己是个陌生人,我们想把世界带回一个让人感觉像村庄的地方,在那里服务来自其他人,你有这种归属感,你被当作一个人对待。
No matter how successful you are in life, often traveling will remind you that you are not that successful. Go through TSA, stay in a typical hotel, sometimes you'll have some problems. We really wanted to make people feel special. This is some of the stuff we did in the early days, we did a lot of storytelling. I mean I've probably told the story of Airbnb ten thousand times and this is a something that is kind of related to culture. Someone asked me the other day, what’s the job of the CEO? There are lots of things a CEO does, but what you mostly do is articulate the vision. To articulate a vision you have to develop a strategy and hire people that fit the culture. If you do those three things you basically have a company and that company will hopefully be successful.
不管你在生活中有多成功,经常旅行都会提醒你你没有那么成功。通过交通安全管理局,住在一个典型的酒店,有时你会有一些问题。我们真的想让人们觉得自己很特别。这是我们早期做的一些事情,我们讲了很多故事。我的意思是我可能已经把Airbnb的故事讲了一万遍了,这和文化有点关系。前几天有人问我,CEO的工作是什么?首席执行官做的事情很多,但你主要做的是清晰地表达愿景。要表达一个愿景,你必须制定一个战略,并雇佣符合文化的人。如果你做了这三件事,你基本上就有了一家公司,那家公司就有望成功。
If you have the right vision, a good strategy, and the people to get there. And so what you end up doing is articulating the vision over and over. Whether it’s recruiting, talking to investors, getting funding, doing PR interviews, speaking in a class room. You are always reinforcing the values. You’re doing it in an email to a customer. You just do it a thousand times, it changes and gets better and better every time. So it kind of evolved.
如果你有正确的愿景,一个好的战略,以及达到目标的人。所以你最终要做的就是一遍又一遍地阐述你的愿景。无论是招聘、与投资者交谈、获得资金、进行公关面试、在教室演讲。你总是在强化价值观。你是在给客户的电子邮件中这样做的。你只要做上千次,每次都会变的越来越好。所以它有点进化了。
Very good question. How do we make sure the hosts are reinforcing the culture of Airbnb? So the answer to that is we do a pretty good job, but not yet an amazing job at that. When we first founded Airbnb, I took the Craig Newmark school of thought, Craig is the founder of Craigslist: anyone should be able to use Airbnb. If you want to rent your place, you should be able to. It turns out, many people believe in our values because we talked about them and believed them. But there were people who rented on Airbnb, not because they believed in the values but instead because they realized they could make a lot of money renting their home. And not everyone was a great culture fit. These people actually did cause us a lot of problems, so this was a lesson for me. I didn't think, it didn’t occur to me in the early days that the hosts had to completely fit our values. We met them, we attract people like us. We realized hosts are like partners and they need to believe in the same culture we do. So now we have this program called the Super Host program where they have to demonstrate values to reach this kind of badge which gets the priority customer support and distribution. We are having this important host convention where we bring all the hosts in and will be talking about reinforcing our values. So the answer is, we were really late, but we now do it by reinforcing it every step of the way.
很好的问题。我们如何确保主持人加强Airbnb的文化?所以答案是我们做得很好,但还不是很出色。当我们第一次创建Airbnb时,我接受了克雷格纽马克学派的思想,克雷格是Craigslist的创始人:任何人都应该能够使用Airbnb。如果你想租房子,你应该可以租。事实证明,很多人相信我们的价值观,因为我们谈论并相信这些价值观。但也有人在Airbnb租房,不是因为他们相信价值观,而是因为他们意识到租房子可以赚很多钱。并不是每个人都适合不同的文化。这些人确实给我们带来了很多问题,所以这对我来说是个教训。我没想到,我在早期没有想到,主持人必须完全符合我们的价值观。我们遇到了他们,我们吸引了像我们这样的人。我们意识到,东道主就像伙伴一样,他们需要相信和我们一样的文化。所以现在我们有一个叫做超级主机程序的程序,在这个程序中,他们必须展示价值观,才能获得这种徽章,从而获得优先的客户支持和分发。我们正在举行一个重要的东道主大会,我们邀请所有东道主参加,并将讨论如何加强我们的价值观。所以答案是,我们真的迟到了,但我们现在通过加强每一步来做到这一点。
Q: Brian, Airbnb has made some great contributions to the open source community. Do you have any thoughts on how that contributes to your culture and company values?
Q: Brian,Airbnb为开源社区做出了一些巨大的贡献。你有没有想过这对你的文化和公司价值观有什么贡献?
Brian Chesky: Yeah, I think just in general, it may be related to two things about Airbnb. We tend to be a pretty open culture just in general, we believe in a shared world where people are giving back, contributing to making communities and industries stronger. It’s my philosophy to talk about everything internally, except for things that relate to customer or client privacy, if it doesn’t relate to those two things, then we will talk about it.
布莱恩·切斯基:是的,我认为一般来说,这可能与Airbnb的两件事有关。我们往往是一个相当开放的文化只是一般来说,我们相信在一个共同的世界里,人们正在回馈,有助于使社区和行业更强大。我的哲学是在内部谈论所有事情,除了与客户或客户隐私有关的事情,如果它与这两件事无关,那么我们将讨论它。
As far as open source culture and engineering, we wanted to make sure that we had a really strong identification of the team and so we really felt like a lot of source code shouldn't be you know, we felt like every company needs some kind of moat that protects you from your competition. We thought some technology would be, but we also felt like we wanted to give back from a technology standpoint. We preferred our moat to be that we provide the very best experience in the world when you use Airbnb, that has the biggest network effects. We thought that kind of took precedent over some of the technology that we use, so we decided to try to share some of that out to people. I think it does relate to the values, I never recommended, I never one day recommended we do any of that. We hired engineers that we thought shared our values in culture and they felt that was the right thing to do.
至于开源文化和工程,我们想确保我们对团队有很强的认同感,所以我们真的觉得很多源代码不应该是你知道的,我们觉得每个公司都需要某种护城河来保护你免受竞争。我们原以为有些技术是可行的,但我们也觉得我们想从技术的角度来回馈。我们希望我们的护城河是,我们提供了世界上最好的经验,当你使用Airbnb,这是最大的网络效应。我们认为这种先例超过了我们使用的一些技术,所以我们决定尝试将其中的一些分享给人们。我认为这确实与价值观有关,我从来没有建议过,我从来没有一天建议过我们这样做。我们雇佣了一些我们认为在文化上有共同价值观的工程师,他们认为这样做是正确的。
Q: You talk about conventions, what did you do when you had no money and you only got paid for those who used your site. What did you do to scale that up? How did you get users to the site.
Q: 你谈论惯例,当你没钱的时候你做了什么,你只为那些使用你网站的人得到报酬。你是怎么扩大规模的?你是如何让用户访问这个网站的。
Brian Chesky: So this is not about culture, but I will answer it anyway. The best advice I ever got was probably from Paul Graham. Paul Graham said, I remember he had this line, it's better to have a hundred people that love you than to have a million people that just sort of like you. It's literally better to have a hundred people love you. And the reason why, if you have one million customers, one million users and they just kind of don't care about you but they use your app and think you're okay, to get them to care is a really hard thing, I don’t know how to get a million people to all of a sudden care. But I do know if you get a hundred people who love you, those people, if they feel incredibly passionate, they will go out and eacb tell a hundred people. All movements that lead to companies or ideas start with just a hundred people.
布莱恩·切斯基:所以这不是关于文化,但我还是会回答的。我得到的最好的建议可能来自保罗·格雷厄姆。保罗·格雷厄姆说,我记得他说过这样一句话,有一百个爱你的人总比有一百万个像你一样的人好。有一百个人爱你真的更好。为什么,如果你有100万客户,100万用户,他们只是不关心你,但他们使用你的应用程序,认为你没事,让他们关心是一件非常困难的事情,我不知道如何让100万人突然关心。但我知道如果你有一百个爱你的人,这些人,如果他们感到无比的热情,他们会出去告诉一百个人。所有的运动,导致公司或想法开始只有一百人。
So the reason this is so critical, is he gave us another lesson which is that if all you need do is get a hundred people to love you, is do things that don’t scale. So it's hard if you've got a million people, you can't you meet them all. You can meet a hundred people, you can spend time with them. So that's exactly what we did. Joe, Nate, and I would go door to door in New York City, or in Denver where the Democratic National Convention was, literally staying and living with our users. It's a joke that when you buy an iPhone, Steve Jobs does not come sleep on your couch. But I will. That was really critical, living with our users. All we had to do was get in with them and share a passion with our users. You work backwards from a hundred people, even one person. But with our new technology, imagine what would be an amazing experience for just this one person. Walk through the journey from that one person, make it perfect for that one person. Once you make it perfect for one person, it's actually really easy to make a service easy for one person, it’s not that hard. Where everyone gets in trouble is they try to solve both at the same time. So the first thing we did was went door to door, that is one thing, that set up memories.
所以这是如此关键的原因,是他给了我们另一个教训,如果你需要做的只是让一百个人爱你,那就是做一些无法衡量的事情。所以如果你有一百万人,你就很难见到他们。你可以遇见一百个人,你可以和他们在一起。所以我们就是这么做的。乔、内特和我会挨家挨户地去纽约市,或者在民主党全国代表大会召开的丹佛市,与我们的用户住在一起。这是一个笑话,当你买了一部iPhone,史蒂夫•乔布斯不来睡你的沙发。但我会的。这真的很关键,和我们的用户一起生活。我们所要做的就是加入他们,与我们的用户分享激情。你从一百个人,甚至一个人,倒过来工作。但有了我们的新技术,想象一下,对于这一个人来说,这将是一次多么美妙的经历。从那个人身上走过旅程,让它完美地适合那个人。一旦你为一个人做了完美的服务,实际上为一个人做一个简单的服务真的很容易,没那么难。每个人遇到麻烦的地方是他们试图同时解决这两个问题。所以我们做的第一件事就是挨家挨户,那是一件事,那就是建立记忆。
I will give one more example before I stop talking about this. Right now with Airbnb you can click a button and put in your home and a professional photographer comes to your home and photographs it for free. We have five thousand photographers around the world and we have photographed hundreds of thousands of homes. So it is the probably one of the largest on-demand photography groups around. I believe this started with Joe and I, we were staying with this one host, in New York City and her house is amazing but her photos were terrible. So we asked, why you don’t put up better photos? This is before the life of the great cameras, 2008. She couldn’t figure out how to get photos from her phone onto her computer. She wasn’t a very technically savvy woman. And I just said, we will just take photos for you. Actually, I said, what if you could press a button and somebody would show up at your door to take professional photographs? She said that would be magic.
在我停止谈论这个之前,我再举一个例子。现在有了Airbnb,你可以点击一个按钮,把它放进你的家里,一个专业摄影师来到你的家里,免费为它拍照。我们在世界各地有五千名摄影师,我们拍摄了成千上万的家庭。因此,它可能是全球最大的点播摄影集团之一。我相信这是从乔和我开始的,我们和一个主人住在纽约,她的房子很漂亮,但是她的照片很糟糕。所以我们问,你为什么不贴更好的照片?这是在2008年伟大相机诞生之前。她不知道如何把手机里的照片传到电脑上。她在技术上不是一个很精明的女人。我刚才说,我们会给你拍照的。事实上,我说,如果你按下一个按钮,有人会出现在你的门口,拍专业的照片呢?她说那会很神奇。
So the next day, I knock on her door going, I’m here. I photographed her home. I sent a few emails to people saying we give this new magical photography service and if you want, you can press the button for a professional photographer to show up at your home. So they would hit this button and it would send me this alert. We rented a camera in Brooklyn. And in January 2009, walking through the snow, we photographed people’s homes. We did this by hand without any technology. We managed that with spreadsheets. I wasn’t going to bother Nate to design something for photography. Then we started hiring contract photographers. Eventfully we got an intern to manage all the contract photographers. Then we made a full time position to manage the other interns of the contract employees. And at some point, this is before we built anything, at some point there were too many people to manage. There were like hundreds of photographers. Then we built all the tools to do all the photography. But we did it only after we knew what the perfect service was.
所以第二天,我去敲她的门,我在这里。我拍下了她的家。我给人们发了几封电子邮件,说我们提供这项新的神奇摄影服务,如果你愿意,你可以按一下按钮让专业摄影师出现在你家里。所以他们会按这个按钮,它会向我发送警报。我们在布鲁克林租了一架照相机。2009年1月,我们在雪地里散步,拍下了人们的家。我们是手工做的,没有任何技术。我们用电子表格解决了这个问题。我不想麻烦内特为摄影设计东西。然后我们开始雇佣合同摄影师。最终我们有了一个实习生来管理所有的合同摄影师。然后我们做了一个全职的职位来管理合同雇员的其他实习生。在某个时候,这是在我们建造任何东西之前,在某个时候有太多的人需要管理。有几百个摄影师。然后我们制作了所有的摄影工具。但我们是在知道什么是完美服务之后才这么做的。
Q: One more question, the question is, in this particular situation with Airbnb, a lot of people think it is not necessarily a technology company, but more of a marketing company.
Q: 还有一个问题,问题是,在Airbnb的这种特殊情况下,很多人认为它不一定是一家技术公司,而更多的是一家营销公司。
Brian Chesky: Good question. I will answer the question with a story.
布莱恩·切斯基:问得好。我将用一个故事来回答这个问题。
Alfred Lin: Let me preface that question with a series of questions. Do you today have propriety technology?
阿尔弗雷德·林:让我先问一系列问题。你现在有合适的技术吗?
Brian Chesky: Yes.
布莱恩·切斯基:是的。
Alfred Lin: Do you have a moat?
林:你有护城河吗?
Brian Chesky: Yes
布莱恩·切斯基:是的
Alfred Lin: Do you have network effects?
艾尔弗雷德林:你有网络效应吗?
Brian Chesky: Yes.
布莱恩·切斯基:是的。
Alfred Lin: Do you have pricing power?
林:你有定价权吗?
Brian Chesky: Yes
布莱恩·切斯基:是的
Alfred Lin: Do you have a good brand?
艾尔弗雷德·林:你们有好牌子吗?
Brian Chesky: I think so .
布莱恩·切斯基:我想是的。
Alfred Lin: Are you a monopoly?
艾尔弗雷德·林:你是个大富翁吗?
Brian Chesky: I am not going to answer that one
布莱恩·切斯基:我不会回答这个问题
Alfred Lin: Getting back to the question, just forgetting about all of that, companies that have network effects and sort of get off the ground, the fly wheel is going, people just think you are lucky.
艾尔弗雷德·林:回到问题上来,忘了所有这些,那些有网络效应的公司开始起步了,摩天轮在飞,人们认为你是幸运的。
Brian Chesky: Let me just answer that one. It’s a totally fair question and people have said it so I want to answer it. The guy who owns Sequoia Capital, his name is Doug Leone. One day, I think it was a year, year and half ago, he says, Your job sucks. And I was all, What the hell does that mean? He says, You have the worst job of any CEO in my portfolio. I said, Tell me why.
布莱恩·切斯基:让我来回答这个问题。这是一个完全公平的问题,人们已经说过了,所以我想回答。红杉资本的老板,叫道格·利昂。有一天,我想是一年半以前,他说,你的工作糟透了。我就是,这到底是什么意思?他说,在我的投资组合中,你的工作是所有CEO中最糟糕的。我说,告诉我为什么。
And this is what he said. "First of all you are a technology company," and I would say that at our heart we are a technology company. "So you have all the challenges of all the other portfolio companies. But beyond that, you are in a hundred and ninety different countries. So you have to figure out how to be international. You have to hire in every country in the world." We are literally in every country except North Korea, Iran, Syria, and Cuba. We are a payments company. We handle billions of dollars of transactions a year, we had to get a business license in the state of California. We have serious fraud and risk. It needs to be locked down like Fort Knox. He said, "That’s usually where companies end. But you have to worry about all the other crap. Trust and safety."
他就是这么说的。”首先,你们是一家技术公司,“我想说,我们的核心是一家技术公司。”所以你有所有其他投资组合公司的所有挑战。但除此之外,你们在一百九十个不同的国家。所以你得想办法国际化。你必须在世界上的每一个国家雇佣员工。“我们几乎在每一个国家,除了朝鲜、伊朗、叙利亚和古巴。我们是一家支付公司。我们每年处理数十亿美元的交易,我们必须在加利福尼亚州获得营业执照。我们有严重的欺诈和风险。它需要像诺克斯堡一样被锁起来。他说,“这通常是公司的终点。但你得担心其他的事。信任和安全。”
We have four hundred and twenty five thousand people staying in other people's individual beds, in their sheets. Think about a woman from Texas staying in the Middle East, or vice versa. Think about the cultural conflicts that could happen and misunderstandings. You have four hundred and twenty-five thousand people a night. It’s like being the Mayor of Oakland. So imagine you are the Mayor of Oakland and all the things that happened in Oakland tonight. You have trust and safety.
我们有42.5万人住在别人的床上,在他们的床单上。想想一个来自德克萨斯州的女人留在中东,反之亦然。想想可能发生的文化冲突和误解。你一个晚上有四十二万五千人。就像当奥克兰市长一样。想象一下,你是奥克兰市长,今晚在奥克兰发生的一切。你有信任和安全。
Now we have regulatory problems. We are in thirty thousand different cities. Every city has different rules, different laws, and many were written in a different century. They were written before you had all the technology. Then you have issues like search and discovery. Google has this thing about being really good at search. Google can give me all these results, but it’s clear that there is only one or two right answers for everybody. We have forty thousand homes in Paris. There is no best home in Paris for anyone in this room. So we have to be really, really great at matching people and technology. Another example, Facebook is a digital product. Their product is their website. Our product is these experiences that you have in the real world. We are not just an online product, but also an offline product. So basically the long and the short of it is we have to be world class at technology, world class at design, we have to be world class at branding. We have to convince government we are good for their neighborhood. Because we have to convince people that we are not crazy, this is a real thing, we have to make sure trust and safety is world class. We handle all these payments and handle risk. And I didn’t even mention culture. This was not about culture. I really do not see it as a marketing company.
现在我们面临监管问题。我们在三万个不同的城市。每个城市都有不同的规则,不同的法律,很多都是在不同的世纪写成的。它们是在你掌握所有技术之前写的。然后你会遇到搜索和发现之类的问题。谷歌很擅长搜索。谷歌可以给我所有这些结果,但很明显,每个人只有一两个正确答案。我们在巴黎有四万套房子。这间屋子里没有巴黎最好的家。所以我们必须非常非常善于匹配人员和技术。另一个例子是,Facebook是一个数字产品。他们的产品就是他们的网站。我们的产品就是你在现实世界中的体验。我们不仅是在线产品,也是线下产品。所以基本上,无论是长是短,我们必须在技术上达到世界级,在设计上达到世界级,在品牌上达到世界级。我们必须说服政府我们对他们的社区有好处。因为我们必须让人们相信我们不是疯子,这是真的,我们必须确保信任和安全是世界级的。我们处理所有这些付款和风险。我甚至没有提到文化。这与文化无关。我真的不认为这是一个营销公司。
Alfred Lin: Thank you.
林:谢谢。
Brian Chesky: Thank you guys.
布莱恩·切斯基:谢谢你们。



 

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