可视化每个国家最有价值的出口产品

Not that trade disruptions weren't taking place even before the pandemic started, but COVID-19 has disrupted this supply chain in more ways than one. People were relieved in January of this year when the Phase 1 trade deal between the U.S and China was announced. Little did anyone know, that a black swan event was about to create a bigger problem.
并不是说在流感大流行之前就没有发生贸易中断,而是COVID-19在多个方面扰乱了供应链。今年1月,美中第一阶段贸易协议宣布后,人们松了一口气。几乎没有人知道,一场黑天鹅事件即将带来更大的问题。
As the infections slowed down during the summer months, many believed that the global economy is slowly going to get back on track. However, a fierce second wave of infections has pushed many European countries into another round of lockdown. And the international trade might take another hit.
随着夏季感染率的下降,许多人相信全球经济将慢慢回到正轨。然而,激烈的第二波感染已经将许多欧洲国家推向了另一轮封锁。国际贸易可能再次受到冲击。
Before jumping onto the regional breakdowns of the top exports, here are some global trends to look at:
在对主要出口产品进行区域细分之前,我们先来看看一些全球趋势:
1.Oil is the single most common top export around the world spanning regions like North America, Africa, the Middle East & Russia.
石油是世界上最常见的主要出口商品,横跨北美、非洲、中东和俄罗斯等地区。
2.Underdeveloped African countries are much more dependent on the exports of raw petroleum, gold & copper.
不发达的非洲国家更依赖于原石油、黄金和铜的出口。
3.While many Asian countries produce and export high-end electronic devices.
而许多亚洲国家生产和出口高端电子设备。
The data for the infographics was taken from CEPII — a leading French center for economic research and analysis, while each country’s top export and its industry designation was assigned according to the UN Comtrade Database.
信息图表的数据来自法国领先的经济研究和分析中心CEPII,而每个国家的最大出口量和行业名称是根据联合国商品贸易数据库分配的。
North America
北美

Petroleum Industry of the most dominant in North America — with the U.S & Canada being major exporters of the commodity (Figure 1). The U.S is also both the single largest producer and the largest consumer of oil. The fracking boom in America has led the country to become a net exporter of oil ($95.8B). Mexico, on the other hand, provides most of the manufactured vehicles for the North American market ($50.7B).
北美最主要的石油工业——美国和加拿大是这种商品的主要出口国(图1)。美国也是最大的石油生产国和消费国。美国的水力压裂热潮使该国成为石油净出口国(958亿美元)。另一方面,墨西哥为北美市场提供了大部分制造车辆(507亿美元)。
South America & the Caribbean
南美洲和加勒比

The exports map is very different for this region — central American countries like Nicaragua, El Salvador & Guatemala are providers of T-shirts. A little to the South — Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador & Bolivia rely on petroleum as their top export. Venezuela alone sends $23.2B worth of the commodity to the World. Further down the South, countries depend on exports of Agricultural products like soybeans — Brazil providing $33.2B of grains (Figure 2).
这一地区的出口地图大不相同,尼加拉瓜、萨尔瓦多和危地马拉等中美洲国家都是T恤衫的供应商。再往南一点——委内瑞拉、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔和玻利维亚主要依靠石油出口。仅委内瑞拉就向世界输送了价值232亿美元的这种商品。再往南,各国依赖大豆等农产品的出口——巴西提供332亿美元的谷物(图2)。
Europe
欧洲

Developed countries of the European continent specialize in finished manufactured goods like automobiles, airplanes and pharmaceuticals. The biggest economy of the region, Germany, is an automobile powerhouse — selling about $155.7B of vehicles to the rest of the world each year. Similarly, home to the aviation giant Airbus, France, exports $43.8B in airplanes every year (Figure 3).
欧洲大陆的发达国家专门生产汽车、飞机和药品等制成品。该地区最大的经济体德国是一个汽车强国,每年向世界其他地区销售约1557亿美元的汽车。同样,航空巨头空客的故乡法国每年出口438亿美元的飞机(图3)。
Asia
亚洲

Stretching out from Turkey in the West to Japan in the east, the biggest continent has a variety of top exports, representing its diversity. The petroleum industry dominates the Middle-eastern region while countries in the East provide more finished products to the rest of the world. China alone sends $223B of electrical machinery to the world, while Saudia Arabia makes $164.8B selling Oil (Figure 4).
从西部的土耳其到东部的日本,这个最大的大陆拥有各种各样的顶级出口产品,代表着它的多样性。中东地区石油工业占主导地位,而东部国家向世界其他地区提供更多的成品。仅中国就向世界输送了2230亿美元的电机,而沙特阿拉伯的石油销售收入为1648亿美元(图4)。
Africa
非洲

The most economically deprived continent depends heavily on raw materials being their top exports — petroleum in the northern countries while Copper & Gold are the top exports for countries in the western & southern regions of the continent. The only exceptions are Morocco & Tunisia, which produce automobiles and wires as finished products respectively (Figure 5).
经济最贫困的大陆在很大程度上依赖于其主要出口的原材料——北方国家的石油,而铜和黄金是该大陆西部和南部地区国家的主要出口。唯一的例外是摩洛哥和突尼斯,它们分别生产汽车和电线作为成品(图5)。
Oceania
大洋洲

Australia is the biggest and the most notable exporter of the region — sending $57.2B worth of coal rest of the world, also making it the World’s second-largest minerals exporter behind Switzerland which makes $63.8B in the business. There are a lot of smaller island nations in the region that specialize in fishing & manufacturing of yachts (Figure 6).
澳大利亚是该地区最大、最著名的煤炭出口国,向世界其他地区输送了价值572亿美元的煤炭,这也使其成为仅次于瑞士的世界第二大矿产出口国,瑞士的煤炭收入为638亿美元。该地区有许多小岛国专门从事渔业和游艇制造(图6)。

 

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